Social Provisions Scale

 The Social Provisions Scale was developed to assess the provisions of social relationships described by Weiss (1973, 1974).  According to Weiss, these provisions reflect what we receive from relationships with other people.  The six provisions include guidance (advice or information), reliable alliance (assurance that others can be counted on in times of stress), reassurance of worth (recognition of one’s competence), attachment (emotional closeness), social integration (a sense of belonging to a group of friends), and opportunity for nurturance (providing assistance to others).  Although Weiss was attempting to describe what we receive from relationships with other people, his description of the social provisions is very similar to other theoretical models of different types of social support (see discussion by Cutrona & Russell, 1987, 1990).

 Using the Social Provisions Scale, scores can be derived for each of the six provisions as well as for a global social support score.  Research we have conducted has supported the reliability and validity of the Social Provisions Scale, as well as the factor structure of the measure (see Cutrona & Russell, 1987).  Scores on the measure have been shown to predict adaptation to stress among a wide variety of populations, including post-partum women, spouses of cancer patients, the elderly, and individuals working in stressful job situations.  Listed below are references to publications from our research group that have employed the Social Provisions Scale to assess perceived availability of social support.

 A copy of the Social Provisions Scale along with a paper presenting psychometric data for the measure can be obtained by sending an e-mail message to drussell@iastate.edu.  Reprints of any of the papers listed below can also be received by sending us an e-mail message.  Be sure to include your mailing address along with an indication of the materials you would like to receive.  We do request that, if you use the measure in your research, you send us a summary of your findings once you have completed your work.

Related Publications

            Cutrona, C. E., Hessling, R. M., Bacon, P. L., & Russell, D. W.  (1998).  Predictors and correlates of continuing involvement with the baby’s father among adolescent mothers.  Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 369-387.

            Russell, D. W., Booth, B., Reed, D., & Laughlin, P. R. (1997).  Personality, social networks, and perceived social support among alcoholics:  A structural equation analysis.  Journal of Personality, 65, 649-692.

            Schmitz, M., Russell, D. W., & Cutrona, C. E.  (1997).  Perceived social support and social network influences on physician utilization among the elderly.  In J. J. Kronenfeld (Ed.), Research in the sociology of health care (Vol. 14, pp. 249-272).  Greenwich, CT:  JAI Press.

            Aquino, J. A., Russell, D. W., Cutrona, C. E., & Altmaier, E. M.  (1996).  Employment status, social support, and life satisfaction among the elderly. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 480-489.

            Cutrona, C. E.   (1996).  Social support in couples; Marriage as a resource in times of stress.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage.

             Cutrona, C. E., Cadoret, R. J., Suhr, J. A., Richards, C. C., Troughton, E., Schutte, K., & Woodworth, G.  (1994).  Interpersonal variables in the prediction of alcoholism among adoptees:  Evidence for gene x environment interactions.  Comprehensive Psychiatry, 35, 171 – 179.

            Cutrona, C. E., Cole, V., Colangelo, N., Assouline, S. G., & Russell, D.  (1994).  Perceived parental social support and academic achievement:  An attachment theory perspective.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 369-378.

             Cutrona, C. E., & Suhr, J. A.  (1994).  Social support communication in the context of marriage:  An analysis of couples' supportive interactions.  In B. Burleson, T. Albrecht, & I. Sarason (Eds.), The communication of social support:  Messages, interactions, relationships, and community (pp. 113 - 135).   Newbury, CA:  Sage.

            Booth, B.M., Russell, D.W., Soucek, S., & Laughlin, P.R.  (1992).  Social support and outcome of alcoholism treatment:  An exploratory analysis.  American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 18, 87-101.

            Booth, B.M., Russell, D.W., Yates, W.R., Laughlin, P.R., Brown, K., & Reed, D.  (1992).  Social support and depression during alcoholism treatment.  Journal of Substance Abuse, 4, 57-67.

            Cutrona, C. E., & Suhr, J. A.  (1992).  Controllability of stressful events and satisfaction with spouse support behaviors.  Communication Research, 19, 154-176.

            Russell, D., & Cutrona, C.E.  (1991).  Social support, stress, and depressive symptoms among the elderly:  Test of a process model. Psychology and Aging, 6, 190-201.

            Baron, R.S., Cutrona, C.E., Hicklin, D., Russell, D., & Lubaroff, D.M.  (1990).  Social support and immune function among spouses of cancer patients.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 344-352.

            Cutrona, C. E.  (1990).  Stress and social support - In search of optimal matching.  Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 3-14.

            Cutrona, C. E., Cohen, B. B., & Igram, S.  (1990).  Contextual determinants of perceived social support.  Journal of Personal and Social Relationships, 7, 553-562.

            Cutrona, C.E., & Russell, D. (1990).  Type of social support and specific stress:  Toward a theory of optimal matching.  In I.G. Sarason, B.R. Sarason, & G.R. Pierce (Eds.), Social support:  An interactional view (pp. 319-366).  New York:  Wiley.

            Cutrona, C. E., & Suhr, J. A.  (1990).  Social support and becoming a parent.  In S. Fisher & T. Cooper (Eds.),  On the move:  The psychological effects of change and transition (pp. 111-125).  New York:  Wiley.

            Cutrona, C. E., Suhr, J. A., & MacFarlane, R.  (1990).  Interpersonal transactions and the psychological sense of support.  In S. Duck & R. Silver (Eds.), Personal relationships and social support (pp. 30-45).  London:  Sage.

            Cutrona, C. E.  (1989).  Ratings of social support by adolescents and adult informants:  Degree of correspondence and prediction of depressive symptoms.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 723-730.

            Ross, R., Altmaier, E., & Russell, D.  (1989).  Job stress, social support, and burnout among counseling center staff.  Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 464-470.

            Cutrona, C.E., & Russell, D. (1987).  The provisions of social relationships and adaptation to stress.  In W.H. Jones & D. Perlman (Eds.), Advances in personal relationships (Vol. 1, pp. 37-67).  Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press.

            Russell, D., Altmaier, E., & Van Velzen, D. (1987).  Job-related stress, social support, and burnout among classroom teachers.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 269-274.

            Constable, J.F., & Russell, D. (1986).  Effect of social support and the work environment upon burnout among nurses.  Journal of Human Stress, 12, 20-26.

            Cutrona, C. E.  (1986).  Behavioral manifestations of social support:  A microanalytic investigation.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 201-208.

            Cutrona, C. E.  (1986).  Objective determinants of perceived social support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 349-355.

            Cutrona, C.E., Russell, D., & Rose, J. (1986).  Social support and adaptation to stress by the elderly. Psychology and Aging, 1, 47-54.

            Cutrona, C. E., & Troutman, B. R.,  (1986).  Social support, infant stress, and parenting self-efficacy:  A mediational model of postpartum depression.  Child Development, 57, 1507-1518.

            Cutrona, C. E.  (1984).  Social support and stress in the transition to parenthood.  Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 378-390.

            Russell, D., Cutrona, C.E., Rose, J., & Yurko, K. (1984).  Social and emotional loneliness:  An examination of Weiss's typology of loneliness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 1313-1321.